The term fabric can be defined as a planner structure produced by interlaced/interlooped yarns or fibers and felts made by interlocking fibers. It is a manufactured assembly of fibers and /or yarns that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient mechanical strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion. Basically, there are three methods by which fabrics are made. They are:
Fig: Fabric construction
Weaving is the intersection of two sets of straight yarns, warp and weft, which cross and interlace at right angles to each other. The lengthwise yarns are known as warp yarns and width wise yarns are known as weft or filling yarns and the fabric produced is known as woven fabric.
Knitting consists of forming yarns into loops, each of which is typically only released after a succeeding loop has been formed and intermeshed with it so that a secure ground loop structure is achieved.
Non- woven Process:
In this method, fabrics (known as non-wovens) are made of fibres held together by an applied bonding agent or by the fusing of self-contained thermoplastic fibres. Here, nothing is processed on conventional spindles, looms or knitting machines.
Warp & Weft:
The word warp is used as a noun to refer-
Threads length ways in a fabric as woven.
A number of threads in long lengths and approximately parallel, in various forms intended for weaving, knitting, doubling, sizing, dyeing, or lace-making.
The word weft refers to -
Threads width wise in a fabric as woven.
Yarn intended for use as in (1).
Fabric construction refers to the fabric specification. The general format of fabric construction is given below:
Warp count X Weft count / Ends per inch X Picks per inch
Example: 20 X 16 / 128 X 60
Some times fabric construction is also written in the other way round i.e.
Ends per inch X Picks per inch / Warp count X Weft count